Джеймс Кук. Капитан открывший половину мира

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James Cook. The captain who discovered half of the world

James Cook. Short biography
The future sailor James was born on October 27, 1728 in the English village of Marton in the family of a day laborer. From the age of 7 he worked with his father, at 13 he began attending school, where he learned to read and write, at 17 he was hired as a clerk’s apprentice to a merchant in a fishing village and saw the sea for the first time. In 1746 he entered as a cabin boy on a ship carrying coal, then became an assistant captain; went to Holland, Norway and Baltic ports, making time for self-education.
In June 1755 he was hired by the British Navy as a sailor, two years later he was sent to Canada as a navigator. In 1762-1767, already in command of the ship, he surveyed the shores of the island of Newfoundland, explored its hinterland, made sailing directions for the northern part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Gulf of Honduras. In 1768 he was promoted to lieutenant.
James Cook’s first expedition
Cook sets out on his first expedition to the vastness of the southern seas at the age of 40 with the rank of lieutenant. Its purpose is astronomical observations of the passage of Venus through the solar disk. It was supposed to take place at the beginning of June 1769, and it could only be observed in the Southern Tropic region. But there is another, more important one: it was necessary to find out whether the Southern land (Antarctica) really exists, and if so, then it should become the property of the British crown. But as a result of his first trip, Cook is unable to verify the existence of the mainland. Nevertheless, the expedition discovered and explored many islands, explored the east coast of Australia, declaring it a colony of England.
Cook’s first circumnavigation of the world lasted a little over 3 years; he was awarded the rank of captain of the 1st rank.
James Cook’s second expedition
The second expedition took place in 1772 and ended in 1775. Now two ships «Resolution» and «Adventure» were transferred to James Cook’s disposal. We sailed, as last time, from Plymouth and took the direction to Cape Town. After Cape Town, the ships turned south.
On January 17, 1773, the expedition crossed the Arctic Circle for the first time, but the ships lost each other. Cook set off in the direction of New Zealand, where, as agreed, they met. Taking with them several islanders who agreed to help in laying the route, the ships sailed further south and again lost sight of each other.
On the second expedition, James discovered the islands of New Caledonia, Norfolk, and the South Sandwich Islands, but because of the ice he could not find the southern continent. And he came to the conclusion that he does not exist.
Cook first met and described flat icebergs, which he called «ice islands.»
James Cook’s third expedition
James Cook’s third round-the-world expedition took place in 1776 and lasted almost 3 years — until 1779. Again, he had two ships at his disposal: «Resolution» and «Discovery». This time Cook was looking for new lands in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, thinking of finding a way around North America.
How did James Cook die?
In 1778, he discovered the Hawaiian Islands, reached the Bering Strait and, meeting ice, returned to Hawaii. On the evening of February 14, 1779, 50-year-old Captain James Cook was killed by the Hawaiians in an open skirmish over theft from his ship.
Cook was married and had 6 children who died in early childhood. More than 20 geographical objects are named after him, including three bays, two groups of islands and two straits.